Depression and bladder and bowel anxieties
Depression involves symptoms such as: (1)a severely depressed mood for more than two weeks, (2) loss of interest in activitiesthat were once pleasurable, (3) a change in appetite, (4) fatigue, (5) difficulty sleeping or sleeping excessively, (6) feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and/or (7) difficult concentrating.
- Paruresis: Individuals with paruresis have been noted to experience depressive symptoms due to their paruresis. A study by Vythilingum, Stein, and Soifer (2002) identified 22.2% of paruresis sufferersreporting major depressive episodes, with 19% of individuals also reporting a history of past major depressive episodes. Additionally, 31.7% of paruresis sufferers were reported to have a family history of depression.
- Parcopresis: While there has not been research on the relationship between parcopresis and depression, individuals with parcopresis are likely to experience depressive symptoms due to their parcopresis. Given its similarities with paruresis, it is likely that parcopresis gives rise to the same psychological symptoms.
- Incontinence anxiety: Individuals with incontinence anxiety have been noted to experience substantial psychological distress and impairment due to their symptoms. Sufferers of incontinence anxiety have reported poor quality of life and depressive symptoms due to their incontinence anxiety symptoms disrupting their life.Some sufferers reported planning their entire lives around being near restrooms, along with significant social and occupational limitations.
Clinically diagnosable disorders involving depression include:
- Major depressive disorder: severe depressive symptoms for two weeks or more
- Persistent depressive disorder (also referred to as dysthymia): depression lasting for a minimum two year period. Depressive symptoms are generally less severe than major depressive disorder.
- Bipolar disorders: characterised by episodes of depressed and abnormally elevated mood (e.g., mania, hypomania).
IMPORTANT: If you are experiencing a crisis or have suicidal thoughts please seek immediate assistance from your local mental health support services. Australian residents can contact Lifeline (phone number: 13 11 14) for 24/7 crisis support. Other Australian mental health support services can be found HERE.